THE REPUBLIC OF UGANDA
NATIONAL POLICY ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES
SUSTAINABLY MANAGED AND DEVELOPED WILDLIFE RESOURCES AND HEALTHY ECOSYSTEMS IN A TRANSFORMED UGANDAN SOCIETY
ENHANCED WILDLIFE CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL GROWTH, EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIO – ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION
MINISTRY OF TOURISM, WILDLIFE AND ANTIQUITIES
It is with great pleasure that I present the Uganda Wildlife Policy, 2014 which was approved by Cabinet under Minute 70 (CT 2014) on 12th March 2014. The Policy aims at providing overall policy guidance for the conservation and development of wildlife resources of Uganda.
Uganda is extra-ordinarily endowed with a rich and highly diverse wildlife resource base that provides the much needed ecological services, and forms a king pin for tourism development. This resource of over 18,783 Species of Fauna and Flora so far recorded, contributes to ranking Uganda among the top ten most biodiversity rich countries in the world.
This Policy provides a framework within which all Government institutions, private sector, development partners, civil society and all other stakeholders in the wildlife conservation industry must operate in order to sustainably conserve and develop the wildlife resource base for national social-economic transformation.
The Policy outlines Government commitment to mitigating human wildlife conflicts, eliminating illegal wildlife trade and trafficking, ensuring that oil and gas sustainably co exists with conservation, promoting of research and conservation education, enhancing community benefits from conservation and promoting private sector enterprises in wildlife conservation.
I wish to thank my colleagues in Government, the technical working group and all stakeholders who contributed to the formulation of this comprehensive policy.
Dr. Maria Mutagamba (MP)
MINISTER OF TOURISM, WILDLIFE AND ANTIQUITIES
In this policy unless the context otherwise requires, the following definitions shall apply-
Biodiversity (or Biological Diversity)
The variability among living organisms from all sources including ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. Accordingly, biodiversity encompasses three levels: ecosystem, species and genetic diversity.
The involvement of local communities, private sector, public institutions and other stakeholders in the management of wildlife resources.
Community Wildlife Area
An area with wildlife resources on private land set aside by law to facilitate development of wildlife management programs for the benefit of the local communities.
The physical removal of wildlife and or their products from their natural habitats as permitted under Wildlife Use Rights Regime.
The Government of the Republic of Uganda.
Those with undisputed individual, corporate and or joint ownership rights to land on which wildlife occurs.
Persons and households living in a defined geographical area, in close proximity to a wildlife conservation area, and identified by common history, common culture or common residence in a parish which shares a boundary with a wildlife conservation area.
Ministry of the Republic of Uganda responsible for wildlife conservation.
An area of National and International importance that because of its biological diversity, landscape or national heritage has been gazetted as such by law.
Any wild animal that poses a threat to human life and or property outside protected areas and with due regard to its conservation status have been declared as such by law.
Any wild plant or animal declared as protected by law.
Sustainable resource utilisation
The use of the country’s natural resources in a manner which helps satisfy the needs of the present generation without compromising the rights to the same resources by future generations.
Wild animals that are destructive, annoying or injurious to health and with due regard to their conservation status have been declared as such by law.
Wildlife Conservation Area
Any area gazetted as a National Park, Wildlife Reserve, Wildlife sanctuary, Community wildlife area, or any other area declared as such by law.
Wildlife Management Area
A wildlife sanctuary, a community wildlife area and any other area the minister may by law declare as such for sustainable management of wildlife.
Wildlife Protected Area
Any area gazetted as National Parks, Wildlife Reserves and any other area gazetted as such by law.
Any area of National or Local importance, which because of its biological diversity, landscape, or natural heritage has been gazetted as such by law.
Wildlife Use Rights
Rights granted to a person, community or organization to utilize wildlife in accordance with the law.
Means any wild plant or animal species or their derivative products indigenous and or introduced in Uganda, including those that migrate through Uganda.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Uganda is a country of exceptional wildlife diversity, encompassing a zone of overlap between the savannahs of East Africa and the West African rain forests. Designated by Churchill as the Pearl of Africa, Uganda is endowed with a vast array of landscapes of incredible aesthetic beauty. The geographic features of Uganda range from glacier-topped mountains, rain forests, savannahs and dry deciduous acacia bush-land to wetlands and swamps. These, along with a wide variation in climate and soils, combine to give the country an impressive range of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Because of this endowment, Lonely planet magazine declared Uganda World’s number one tourism destination in 2012 confirming Churchill’s historic finding that Uganda was truly the Pearl of Africa.
The country’s wide range of habitats supports a very high and rich diversity of both animal and plant species. With a recorded 18,783 species of fauna and flora (NEMA, 2009), Uganda ranks among the top ten most bio diverse countries globally. Uganda is host to 53.9% of the World’s remaining population of mountain gorillas, 11% (1063 species) of the world’s recorded species of birds (50% of Africa’s bird species richness), 7.8% (345 species) of the Global Mammal Diversity (39% of Africa’s Mammal Richness), 19% (86 species) of Africa’s amphibian species richness and 14% (142 species) of Africa’s reptile species richness, 1,249 recorded species of butterflies and 600 species of fish.
There are 30 species of antelope, 24 species of primates including charismatic species of Mountain Gorillas and Chimpanzees, and more than 5,406 species of plants so far recorded of which 30 species of plants are endemic to Uganda.
The country’s immense biological diversity is important both nationally and internationally, and offers good opportunities for cost-effective multiple species conservation. Uganda’s endemic species are primarily associated with high mountains, forests, and the major pleistocene refugium of the Albertine Rift Valley. Among the larger mammalian species, Uganda is endowed with relatively stable populations of among others, Elephant, Buffalo, Hippopotamus, Eland, Zebra, Hartebeest, Waterbuck, Reedbuck, and Uganda Kob. The country is also home to the Lions, Cheetahs, Leopards, Hunting Dog and Hyenas among others. Uganda therefore has all the big five animals.
Currently Uganda has 159 species listed in the IUCN Red List, 2008; which includes 38 plants, 21 mammals, 18 birds, 6 amphibians, 54 fishes, 10 molluscs and 12 being other invertebrates. Because of this great diversity, Government has designated wildlife conservation and other protected areas to protect this endowment and harness environmental and tourism development benefits.
Out of a total surface area of 241,551sqkm (both land and water), 25,981.57sqkm (10%) is gazetted as wildlife conservation areas, 24% is gazetted as forest reserves and 13% is wetlands. Uganda has 10 National Parks, 12 Wildlife Reserves, 10 wildlife sanctuaries, 5 community wildlife areas, 506 central forest reserves and 191 local forest reserves.
It is however estimated that over 50% of Uganda’s wildlife resources still remain outside designated protected areas, mostly on privately owned land; and is of most urgent concern for protection and development.
1.2. HISTORY OF WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN UGANDA
Between the late 1880’s and 1902, there were concerted efforts of setting aside major ecosystems and wildlife communities for conservation and sustainable use. This was preceded by an era of self regulation and control of use of all wildlife resources under guidance of culture and traditional way of life. The period 1902-1923 was characterized by introduction of sport hunting, banning use of traditional hunting methods and tools, creating limitations and difficulties to continued use of wildlife resources by local communities.
In 1923, the colonial government established a Game Elephant Control Unit that was later transformed into the Game Department in 1925/26 under the Game Ordinance of 1926 to mitigate against potential depletion of large game species including elephants, rhinos, lions and hippos.
The colonial government continued with the process of touring and assessing the condition of wildlife resources culminating into identification of areas of great concentration and healthy community condition as wildlife sanctuaries, some of which were later gazzeted as Game Reserves (Lake George, Toro, Lake Edward, Bunyoro and Gulu) under the Game (Preservation and Control) Ordinance of July 1926.
The process of identifying areas important for wildlife resources based on population numbers and habitat condition continued, culminating into creation of two National Parks, in a process that combined lake Edward and Lake George Game Reserves to create Queen Elizabeth National Park and combining of Gulu and Bunyoro Game Reserves to create Murchison Falls National Park, under the National Parks Ordinance No. 3 of 1952.
The National Parks Ordinance created a new dispensation in wildlife conservation where the management of the new national parks – a highest category of wildlife conservation area, was put under a separate fully autonomous institution called the Uganda National Parks. The process and the new development therefore left the Game Department under the Game Preservation and Control Act to be responsible for management of all wildlife outside National Parks and overall policy development and supervision of the sector.
From 1959 to 1962, the national programme on wildlife conservation, now under the two institutions, lead by the Game Department, embarked on consolidating gains including identification of additional important areas for (a) protection of wildlife and (b) human-wildlife conflict with special reference to problem elephants. As a result, more conservation areas were created including Controlled Hunting Areas (seasonal) and Wildlife Sanctuaries; leading to the National wildlife conservation Programme that was adopted by the newly independent Uganda of 1962 under the Game (Preservation and Control) Act of 1962. The subsequent process involved the creation of more protected areas including National Parks (Kidepo, 1963), Game Reserves and in particular the establishment of permanent Controlled Hunting Areas under Uganda National Parks Act of 1964 and Game (Preservation and Control) Act of 1964 respectively.
The Uganda Wildlife Statute No. 14 of 1996 (Uganda Wildlife Act, Cap 200 of 2000) and Uganda Wildlife Training Institute Statute of 1996 (Uganda Wildlife Training Institute Act, Cap 139 of 2000), Uganda Wildlife Education Centre Trust Deed of 1994, and the Uganda Game (Preservation and Control) Act Cap 198, provided for rationalization of the wildlife sector to the current set up.
The wildlife conservation process was historically guided by the existing legislation as shown above and strongly supported by policy positions of the day which were mostly contained in political statements (verbal and written), including Government positions provided for in the Annual Reports of the Game Department, and to some extent the Forestry Department and the Fisheries Department. The first written policies on wildlife conservation were the draft versions of 1994 and 1999.
In Uganda’s history, it is only the1995 Constitution that provides for wildlife conservation as well as biodiversity and the natural environment; thus creating an enabling environment for policy formulation, planning and programme development. Under Objective XIII, the Constitution obliges the state to protect important natural resources, and also provides for creation and development of Parks, Reserves, and recreation areas
Conservation approach historically promoted preservation rather than utilization and community participation. It was not until 1994 that the Wildlife Policy for Uganda gave recognition to community participation in wildlife management. The paradigm shift to involvement of local people in conservation has created opportunities for communities to directly engage and benefit from wildlife conservation.
1.3 EXISTING POLICY AND LEGAL FRAME WORK FOR WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN UGANDA
The 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Uganda provides for state protection of important natural resources such as land, water, wetlands, minerals, fauna and flora on behalf of the people of Uganda under Objective XIII. It provides for creation and development of Parks, Reserves, recreation areas and conservation of natural resources by central and or Local Governments under Objective XXVII. The same objective further obligates the state to promote the rational use of natural resources so as to safeguard and protect the biodiversity of Uganda.
Wildlife conservation is governed under overall policy guidance of the national Constitution supported by various framework policies and laws including the the National Environment Policy (1994) and National Environment Act, Cap 153 of 2000. Other enabling policies and laws include the Local Government Act, 1997; National Forestry and Tree Planting Act, 2003; Wetland Policy, 1995; Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda, 2008; Fish Act, Cap 197 of 2000; Animal (Prevention of Cruelty) Act, Cap 220; Cattle Grazing Act, Cap 222 of 2000; Plant Protection Act; Prohibition of Burning of Grass Act, Cap 33 of 2000; Animal Diseases Act, Cap. 218 of 2000; among others
Wildlife sector is currently governed under Uganda Wildlife Act, Cap 200 of 2000, the Uganda Wildlife Education Centre Trust Deed and the Universities and other Tertially Institutions Act, 2001 in relation to Uganda Wildlife Authority, Uganda Wildlife Education Centre Trust and the Uganda Wildlife Training Institute respectively
1.3.1 The National Environment Act, Cap 153 of 2000
The object of the National Environment Act is to further the principles of environmental management by facilitating the conservation and enhancement of the environment. The Act provides for wildlife protection and contains provisions which can be applied to the protection and sustainable use of wildlife. It includes provisions for the conservation of biological resources in situ, and the selection and management of protected and buffer areas. The act also provides a basis for environmental impact assessment.
1.3.2 The Uganda Wildlife Act, Cap 200 of 2000
This provides for establishment of wildlife conservation areas and management of wildlife resources in these areas and outside. The Act also establishes wildlife use right and the institutional framework for programme development and implementation.
1.3.3 Uganda Wildlife Education Centre Trust Deed, 1994
This Deed provides for establishment and management of the former Entebbe zoo as Uganda Wildlife Education Centre. It lays down the objects and management of the Centre. This legal set up is however, weak and not enabling the Centre to effectively execute its mandate.
1.3.4 Universities and other Tertiary Institutions Act, 2001
This provides a basis for formation of specialized sectoral training institutions and human resource capacity development in general. The Uganda Wildlife Institute currently derives its legal existence from this law. The Act repealed Uganda Wildlife Training Institute Act and placed all training institutions under one umbrella. Government has however reversed this decision by Policy and this institute will soon be re-established with its own Act of Parliament.
1.3.5 International law
It is a recognised principle of international law that once a state enters into an international treaty with one or more states or international organisation or body it undertakes to honour the obligations under that
reaty. The obligation is both legal and moral. The 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Uganda sets out the principles of foreign policy objective of Uganda as (a) promotion of the national interest of Uganda; (b) respect for international law and treaty obligations;(c) peaceful coexistence and nonalignment;
(d) Settlement of international disputes by peaceful means; (e) opposition to all forms of domination, racism and other forms of oppression and exploitation
Uganda is a signatory to a number of international conventions, treaties and Agreements relating to wildlife. These, inline with Uganda’s foreign policy, obligate the state to conserve wildlife and wildlife protected areas and promote sustainable development of wildlife resources. International laws most direct and of immediate importance for the conservation of wildlife to which Uganda is a member state includes:-
184.108.40.206 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) of 1992
This obliges member states to establish a system of protected areas, develop guidelines for the selection, establishment and management of protected areas, and promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings and integration of sustainable utilisation of natural resources in national strategies.
220.127.116.11 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES) of 1973 This obliges member states to regulate international trade in endangered species of fauna and flora through international cooperation. The Ministry responsible for wildlife is the Management Authority of CITES in Uganda.
18.104.22.168 Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) of 197
This convention obligates Uganda to conserve migratory species of wildlife across their migratory range. It also requires Uganda to cooperate with other states that form part of the migratory range of wildlife resources found or migrating through Uganda. Other protocols have been formulated under this convention and they include African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) which Uganda is a party to and Gorilla Agreement which Uganda is yet to ratify.
Other applicable national and international laws that govern management and sustainable utilization of wildlife are listed in appendices to this policy.
22.214.171.124 East African Community Protocol on Environment and Natural Resources
This protocol obligates Uganda to sustainably conserve wildlife resources in partnership with the local communities. The protocol requires Uganda to cooperate in management of transboundary wildlife resources, promoting of social and economic incentives for conservation and to conclude agreements aimed at conserving transboundary wildlife resources.
1.4 JUSTIFICATION FOR REVIEW OF THE WILDLIFE POLICY, 1999
The first written wildlife Policy for Uganda was formulated in 1994. During this same period, the 1995 Constitution of Uganda was under promulgation, the National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) was under formulation with several other key policies of Government including Land Policy, Decentralization Policy, Wetland Policy, and Forestry Policy among others under formulation. This resulted in parallel processes with less inter linkage and complementarities.
Since 1994, several Government policies that impact or are impacted by Wildlife Policy have come up including the Oil and Gas Policy, the National Development Plan, the Land Use Policy for Uganda among others. This coupled with the lapse of time has necessitated review of the Wildlife Policy with a view to align it with other Government Policies and refocus the sector to effectively contribute to national transformation for prosperity.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF WILDLIFE TO THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
At least 40 per cent of the world’s economy and 80 per cent of the needs of the poor are derived from biological resources (CBD, 2009). In addition, the richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportunity for medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to such new challenges as climate change.
Biodiversity provides a number of services and natural resources to mankind. The ecosystem services include protection of water resources, soils formation and protection, nutrient storage and recycling, pollution breakdown and absorption, climate stability, maintenance of ecosystems, and recovery from unpredictable events. Biological resources include food, medicines and pharmaceuticals, wood products, ornamental plants, breeding stocks, diversity in genes, species, populations and ecosystems. Social benefits include research, education and monitoring, recreation, tourism and cultural values; future and option values.
Traditionally, the contribution of wildlife resources to the economy of a country was based on monetary considerations, which largely came from tourism. Today, sector contribution to GDP, net foreign exchange earnings, generation of local income, direct and indirect employment, and the augmentation of Government revenue are some of the measures used to value importance of different sectors. On the global scale, environmental values like water catchment, carbon sequestration and climate stabilisation in general terms are increasingly being incorporated in national economies.
Wildlife benefits national economies in terms of contribution to GDP, foreign exchange earnings, direct and indirect employment, direct income, and creation of market for other national trade products, traditional medicine and biomedical research advancement, energy production, shelter construction materials, and a number of social-cultural and aesthetic values.
In Uganda, wildlife underpins tourism development which makes significant contribution to the economy. The value generated to the economy through wildlife trade and safari hunting is increasingly becoming significant. As tourism continues to be the fastest growing sector globally, with the security situation stabilised and infrastructure continuing to improve, Uganda will be a leading tourist destination in Africa.
1.6 WILDLIFE SECTOR PERFORMANCE OVER THE RECENT PERIOD
Tourism which is largely wildlife based plays a key role in Uganda’s export earnings. The sector is now the leading foreign exchange earner for Uganda contributing US$1,003,000,000 as of 2013, inform of foreign exchange to the National Economy
Tourist arrivals rose from 806,658 in 2009 to 1,233,000 in 2013 representing about 17% annual growth rate. Uganda’s tourism relies significantly on wildlife and visitors to wildlife protected areas have been steadily growing. Annual visitor arrivals to wildlife protected areas grew at an average annual growth rate of 35% in the last ten years.
Direct revenue generated from wildlife protected areas into National revenues has been steadily rising, having grown from only UGX 3,305,000,000 in 2000 to now about UGX 46,000,000,000 in 2013. Uganda Wildlife Authority is now able to finance 80% of its annual budget as of 2013 up from 27% in 2006. This is an indication that the sector in increasingly becoming sustainable. The 20% of all gate entrance fees to all Wildlife Protected Areas flows directly to communities neighboring the respective Protected Areas. With increasing tourist arrivals and spending, local communities are bound to significantly benefit from wildlife resources.
Wildlife sector provides employment opportunities to Ugandans directly and indirectly through conservation, wildlife based tourism, trade and civil societies. Over 80,000 people were directly employed in the wildlife sector by 2009. Uganda Wildlife Authority alone employs over 1300 permanent staff. The concessions given to private businesses to operate hotels within the protected areas have also boosted employment opportunities for local people. Hotels within and outside conservation areas employ a number of people from the surrounding areas and contribute to the National Treasury through taxes.
Uganda Wildlife Training Institute revenue has been increasing at an average annual rate of 52% in the past ten years. Annual Student enrollment growth rate stands at 11% as 2013.
Internally generated revenue by Uganda Wildlife Education Centre has been growing at an average annual growth rate of 44% in the last ten years. Uganda Wildlife Education Centre is now able to finance 100% of its recurrent operations from internally generated funds having moved from 16% as of 2003. Visitor numbers to the Centre grew at an average annual rate of 5% in the last five years.
1.7 NATIONAL WILDLIFE SECTOR CHALLENGES AND BINDING CONSTRAINTS
In order to develop and promote wildlife sector, the following challenges have been identified and this policy provides a framework to address the challenges to enable the sector contribute significantly to the overall prosperity transformation of Uganda.
Sector specific issues
1. Protection of areas with high levels of biological diversity that are representative of the major habitats of Uganda.
2. Sustainable management of Uganda’s wildlife populations and protection of threatened and endangered species and their habitats.
3. Mitigating human wildlife conflicts and enhancing positive attitude towards conservation of wildlife resources.
4. Ensuring effective public private partnerships in wildlife resources management and conservation policy development
5. Realising Sustainable management of trans-boundary wildlife resources
6. Management of wildlife resources outside protected areas, with Local authorities and rural communities playing a pivotal role.
7. Management of wildlife populations and conservation areas in accordance with sound conservation principles and standards.
8. Limited applied wildlife research that directly contributes to wildlife management and conservation policy development.
9. Ensuring sustainable utilization of wildlife resources for livelihood improvement, conservation and poverty reduction.
10. Limited awareness of wildlife conservation issues among policy makers, local communities and general public.
11. Combating poaching, illegal wildlife trade and trafficking of wildlife species and or products and associated insecurity.
12. Inadequate laws and cultural practices that promote the wildlife resource conservation.
13. Stiff competition between wildlife conservation as a form of land use and other forms of land use
14. Minimizing negative impacts of oil and gas, mining and tourism development activities on wildlife.
15. Inadequate alternative funding sources to finance wildlife sector policies, plans and programs.
16. Management and control of human, wildlife and livestock disease interface.
17. Effective participation in development and implementation of the global conservation policy.
Cross cutting issues
1. Negative impacts of climate change on wildlife populations and habitats
2. High population growth rate that threatens wildlife habitats and populations
3. Insecurity associated with the global terrorism threats
CHAPTER 2: THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE POLICY FRAMEWORK
2.1 GUIDING PRINCIPLES
2.1.1 Sustainable development: Conservation of the wildlife resources of Uganda shall be in such a way as to meet the development and environmental needs of present and future generations.
2.1.2 Doctrine of Public Trust: The State shall hold in trust and manage wildlife resources for the benefit of and on behalf of the people of Uganda.
2.1.3 Maximization of benefits: Wildlife conservation and development activities shall take the form that maximizes benefits while maintaining ecological integrity.
2.1.4 Transparency, accountability and fair competition: The wildlife policy shall promote high standards of transparency, accountability and fair competition including wildlife management, licensing, procurement, concessioning, use-rights and quota management, management of revenues from wildlife resources and wildlife conservation in general.
2.1.5 Public Private partnership: The wildlife policy shall promote public-private partnerships in the development and management of wildlife resources.
2.1.6 Promotion of the interests of local communities around Conservation areas: All efforts shall be made to ensure peace, stability and harmonious co existence between wildlife and people including among others, equitable revenue sharing, regulated resource access and involvement in management in line with the Constitution and any relevant laws passed by Parliament from time to time.
2.1.7 Research guided decision making: The management and sustainable utilization of wildlife shall be based on sound scientific and or indigenous knowledge. Wildlife trade and or general off take shall be based on scientific information to ensure that such utilization is sustainable.
2.1.8 Climate change mitigation and adaptation: The wildlife policy shall promote climate change awareness, mitigation and adaptation. The policy shall pursue initiatives that build capacity of wildlife populations and people to be more resilient to climate change shocks.
2.1.9 Gender and Youth empowerment: The wildlife policy shall promote gender equality and involvement of the youth in the development and management of wildlife resources.
2.2 POLICY VISION
In line with the National Vision which is “A transformed Ugandan society from a peasant to a modern and prosperous country within 30 years”, the policy vision for the wildlife sector is “Sustainably managed and developed wildlife resources and healthy ecosystems in a developed Uganda”.
2.3 POLICY GOAL
To conserve wildlife resources of Uganda in a manner that contributes to the sustainable development of the nation and the well-being of its people.
2.4 POLICY OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the Uganda Wildlife Policy are:
. 2.4.1 To promote sustainable management of Uganda’s wildlife Protected areas.
. 2.4.2 To sustainably manage wildlife populations in and outside Protected areas.
. 2.4.3 To promote sustainable and equitable utilization of wildlife resources as a viable form of land use for national economic development.
. 2.4.4 To effectively mitigate human wildlife conflicts.
. 2.4.5 To promote wildlife research and training.
. 2.4.6 To promote conservation education and awareness across the nation.
. 2.4.7 To ensure net positive impacts of exploration and development of extractive industries and other forms of development in wildlife conservation areas.
. 2.4.8 To effectively combat wildlife related crime.
. 2.4.9 To promote and support local, regional and global partnerships for conservation of wildlife.
2.5 STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE OBJECTIVES
Government of Uganda undertakes to employ the following strategies to achieve the set national objectives.
Objective 1: To promote sustainable management of wildlife Protected Areas
. a) Develop and disseminate clear criteria for gazettement and degazettement of wildlife conservation areas.
. b) Manage all Protected Areas in accordance with National Protected Area Systems Plan, General Management Plans, Annual Operational Plans and other regulations.
. c) Restore all degraded wildlife protected areas in accordance with approved management plans.
. d) Ensure that all new developments and interventions within protected areas are subjected to appropriate environmental impact assessments and regular environmental audits are conducted on existing ones.
. e) Ensure that all Protected Areas boundaries are surveyed marked and secured.
. f) Formulate and enforce necessary protected area bye-laws and regulations in a manner that is consistent with the need to protect wildlife and enhancement of community livelihoods.
. g) Promote ecological research and monitoring.
. h) Promote protected areas as a focus of local community involvement, pride, ownership and commitment and, where appropriate, a source of socio-economic benefit.
. i) Actively participate in Central and Local Government decision making on activities impacting wildlife management.
. j) Maintain all wildlife protected areas free from illegal settlers.
. k) Compensate and remove all legally existing settlements in Protected Areas.
. l) Promote community conservation initiatives through alternative livelihood improvement projects.
. m) Conduct regular inspections of wildlife protected areas to ensure effective policy implementation and sound management practices.
. n) Integrate sustainable traditional cultural values into management of Protected Areas.
. o) Strengthen sector institutional capacity to effectively manage Protected Areas.
. p) Provide effective security in the Protected Areas within the context of the fight against terrorism.
Objective 2: To sustainably manage wildlife populations in and outside wildlife protected areas
Strategies for conservation outside wildlife protected areas
. a) Develop and implement an integrated National Management Plan for wildlife outside protected areas.
. b) Promote sustainable wildlife utilization programmes as an incentive for wildlife management on private land.
. c) Provide guidelines on the conservation of wildlife outside protected areas, and promote the implementation of such approaches.
. d) Where appropriate, promote the establishment of Community Wildlife Areas (CWAs) and provide technical input into the preparation and implementation of CWA management plans.
. e) Build capacity of Local Governments to effectively participate in wildlife conservation.
. f) Partner with forestry and wetland management institutions and Local Governments to effectively manage wildlife in wetlands, forest reserves and private land.
. g) Pursue payment for ecosystem services as an incentive for conservation.
. h) Strengthen collaboration between wildlife, forest reserves and wetlands management institutions.
. i) Support efforts to conserve wildlife species in forestry reserves and wetlands.
Strategies for wildlife species-specific conservation
. a) Formulate and implement species-specific national conservation plans, strategies and programmes for rare, threatened, endemic, endangered or extinct species.
. b) Establish and maintain major wildlife corridors, dispersal areas and migratory routes.
. c) Establish and maintain ex-situ conservation facilities and programs.
. d) Establish and maintain wildlife veterinary support services.
. e) Ensure that appropriate policies and guidelines for wildlife rescue, shipment, translocation and re-introduction are put in place and followed.
. f) Promote trans-boundary collaboration on wildlife conservation and management.
. g) Ensure that wildlife populations are surveyed at a frequency which enables their status to be adequately monitored and management decisions taken.
. h) Enhance the use of indigenous knowledge in the conservation and management of wildlife.
. i) Establish and maintain a national wildlife bio bank.
. j) Identify wildlife species that should be classified as protected species.
. k) Prevent, manage and control wildlife diseases.
. l) Promote community conservation initiatives through alternative livelihood improvement projects.
. m) Support initiatives for climate change mitigation, adaptation and resilience.
. n) Strengthen sector institutional capacity to effectively conserve species.
Objective 3: To promote sustainable and equitable utilization of wildlife as a viable economic form of land use
Strategies for tourism development
. a) Promote eco-tourism in wildlife conservation areas.
. b) Ensure safety and security in wildlife conservation areas.
. c) Diversify tourism product base in wildlife conservation areas.
. d) Develop and or improve infrastructure in wildlife protected areas.
. e) Support sustainable sport hunting based on scientific knowledge.
. f) Promote initiatives that encourage domestic tourism in wildlife conservation areas.
. g) Develop and implement tourism promotion initiatives that support wildlife conservation both locally and internationally.
. h) Remove exclusion zones and promote fair competition in wildlife protected areas based investments.
. i) Support the private sector to effectively participate in conservation related enterprise development.
Strategies for extractive wildlife utilization
. a) Formulate regulations, standards, guidelines and procedures for sustainable utilization of wildlife.
. b) Promote sustainable wildlife trade in Uganda.
. c) Promote value addition to wildlife products/specimens including meat, trophy and skin/hides processing.
. d) Conduct research, monitoring and evaluation on wildlife production systems and markets to support wildlife trade development.
. e) Ensure that sustainable off-take levels are maintained in wildlife extractive utilization areas.
. f) Identify and market existing investment opportunities in wildlife sector.
. g) Create capacity and incentives to support private sector involvement in wildlife conservation and development.
. h) Monitor and ensure compliance to standards and regulations for all forms of wildlife utilisation.
Objective 4: To effectively mitigate human-wildlife conflicts
. a) Establish and maintain barriers along wildlife protected area boundaries for all areas susceptible to stray wild animals.
. b) Regularly compile baseline information on damage occasioned by wildlife for crops, livestock, property, injury and loss of life.
. c) Increase and direct revenue sharing funds to human wildlife conflict mitigation and other wildlife conservation related interventions.
. d) Establish and implement a scheme to compensate for the loss of human life and injuries occasioned by wild animals escaping from wildlife protected areas.
. e) Create capacity of Local Governments and communities to address problem-animal and vermin control challenges.
. f) Develop and implement national Guidelines for problem animal and vermin control and management.
. g) Identify wildlife species that should be classified as vermin, problem animals and protected species.
. h) Promote value addition and utilisation initiatives in vermin and problem animal management.
. i) Manage and control human-wildlife-livestock disease interface.
. j) Strengthen sector institutional capacity to manage human wildlife conflicts.
. k) Accommodate the needs of both the wildlife and the human population with focus on areas affected by insurgency and civil strife.
Objective 5: To promote wildlife research and training
. a) Establish and maintain a national wildlife research and training institute
. b) Design, implement and or support wildlife research that is relevant to defined national development priorities
. c) Conduct regular selective wildlife population surveys
. d) Monitor wildlife species and their habitats
. e) Support human resource capacity building for wildlife management
. f) Collaborate with Universities and research institutions in wildlife research and training
Objective 6: To promote and support wildlife conservation education and awareness
. a) Transform Uganda Wildlife Education Centre into a statutory agency
. b) Strengthen the wildlife conservation education institution
. c) Establish and maintain wildlife education centres and facilities across the nation
. d) Establish collaboration mechanisms with relevant institutions to enhance wildlife conservation education and awareness
. e) Integrate conservation education in national curricula at all education levels
. f) Design, implement and or support regular audience specific conservation education and awareness programs
. g) Establish a framework and guidelines for harmonisation of conservation education programs.
Objective 7: To ensure net positive impacts of exploration and development of extractive industries and other forms of development in wildlife conservation areas
. a) Cooperate with the ministry responsible for oil and gas, mineral and energy development, oil companies and other relevant stakeholders to ensure co- existence of wildlife with other development activities
. b) Establish standards, guidelines and mitigation measures to be followed for any development activities that may have a significant impact on wildlife
. c) Monitor impacts of exploration and development of oil, gas and other minerals, tourism and energy infrastructure development in wildlife conservation areas
. d) Ensure that exploration and development of oil, gas and other minerals; tourism and energy infrastructure development in wildlife conservation areas follow approved environment impact assessments
. e) Create capacity of wildlife sector institutions to monitor impacts of oil and gas exploration and development and any other industrial or infrastructural developments
. f) Pursue biodiversity offsets and payment for ecosystem services initiatives where mitigation is inappropriate
Objective 8: To effectively combat wildlife crime
. a) Review Uganda Wildlife Act Cap 2000
. b) Formulate regulations and guidelines to operationalize wildlife Act
. c) Regulate possession, use and trade in wildlife products/specimen
. d) Ensure that all wildlife protected area boundaries are surveyed, marked, monitored and secured
. e) Eliminate illegal wildlife off-take (Poaching) within and outside protected areas
. f) Maintain a disciplined, motivated, trained, equipped and proactive wildlife sector workforce
. g) Collaborate with all relevant enforcement agencies and other stakeholders at local, national, regional and international level to stop poaching, illegal wildlife trade and trafficking
. h) Promote legal means of wildlife utilization through use rights regimes
Objective 9: To promote local, regional and global partnerships for conservation of wildlife Strategies for local partnerships
Promote wildlife protected areas as a focus of local community involvement, pride, ownership and commitment and, where appropriate, a source of socio-economic benefit. Promote active participation of Local Governments in tourism and wildlife decision making and other activities impacting wildlife management. Share wildlife revenue and other benefits with the communities impacted by wildlife. Define and implement clear guidelines, on protected area management, revenue sharing, resource access and other local community protected area relationships. Where appropriate, allow people from the neighbouring communities controlled access to conservation areas for the sustainable harvest of wildlife products of traditional value. Support community initiatives to provide alternative sources of wildlife products of traditional value. Support initiatives aimed at enhancing positive attitude towards wildlife. Mainstream wildlife management in Local Government decision making.
Strategies for regional and global partnerships
. a) Promote trans-boundary collaboration on wildlife conservation and management.
. b) Proactively participate in negotiations, ratify, domesticate and implement all wildlife related international agreements, treaties, conventions and protocols that are in Uganda’s national interests.
. c) Harmonise wildlife related policies, plans and programmes in line with East African Community ideals.
. d) Create capacity of the sector in negotiation and implementation of international agreements.
CHAPTER 3: POLICY IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION
3.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
In performing their respective roles, institutions under the wildlife sector shall maintain good working relationships and shall consult each other to avoid conflicts and duplication of functions. The institutional arrangement below shall guide implementation of this policy.
3.1.1 The Ministry responsible for wildlife:
The ministry responsible for wildlife will provide the overall supervision of the sector. The ministry shall be directly in charge of policy development, licensing, international conventions, monitoring implementation and evaluation of all wildlife sector policies, overall sector planning, and coordination and inter- state Government link for wildlife sector.
3.1.2 Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA)
As the lead agency for wildlife management in Uganda, UWA shall be in charge of wildlife protected area management and regulation of management of wildlife outside wildlife protected areas. In order to effectively deliver this mandate, UWA shall collaborate with other institutions that have related mandates including wetlands and forest management institutions.
3.1.3 Uganda Wildlife Education Centre (UWEC)
As the lead agency for conservation education in Uganda, UWEC shall be responsible for conservation education and awareness, rescue and rehabilitation of wildlife, captive wildlife breeding and management.
3.1.4 Uganda Wildlife Research and Training Institute (UWRTI)
As the lead agency for wildlife research and training, UWRTI shall be responsible for wildlife research, training and consultancy services. This will be done in partnership with Universities and other higher training and research institutions involved in wildlife research and training.
3.1.5 National Forestry Authority
As the institution in charge of forestry management in Uganda, National Forestry Authority shall in accordance with this policy and relevant wildlife laws be in charge of management of wildlife that is found in forest reserves under its jurisdiction under technical guidance of Uganda Wildlife Authority.
3.1.6 Ministry responsible for wetlands
As the Government ministry responsible for wetland management, the Ministry shall in accordance with this policy and relevant wildlife laws be in charge of management of wildlife that is found in wetlands under its jurisdiction under technical guidance of Uganda Wildlife Authority.
3.1.7 Local Governments
As the lead department for Natural resources management in local Government, the department of natural resources management shall in accordance with this policy and relevant wildlife laws and with technical guidance from Uganda Wildlife Authority be in charge of management of wildlife that is found in areas outside protected areas under District jurisdiction including private lands.
3.1.8 Ministry responsible for oil and gas development
As the lead agency for oil and gas development in Uganda, the Ministry responsible for exploration and development of oil and gas shall ensure that oil and gas exploration and development activities in wildlife conservation areas are in harmony with conservation of wildlife.
3.1.9 National Environment Management Authority (NEMA)
As the regulator for environment management and compliance in Uganda, NEMA shall ensure that all development activities in wildlife conservation areas comply with strategic environment assessments and environmental impact assessment requirements.
3.1.10 Other Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies
All Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies while implementing their respective mandates in areas of wildlife conservation significance, shall ensure that their activities are in harmony with conservation of wildlife.
3.2 PRIVATE SECTOR, CIVIL SOCIETY AND ACADEMIA
Government recognises the important role played by the Academia, Media, NGOs and the private sector in the management of wildlife. In order to encourage their participation and involvement in the management of protected areas and wildlife resources and in the establishment of tourism facilities, research and training, conservation education and implementation of this policy in general, Government shall provide necessary support, appropriate incentives, guidelines and collaborative initiatives to private sector, civil society and academia to play a meaningful role in wildlife conservation.
Government shall also attempt to minimise bureaucratic procedures, and provide an appropriate forum where the academia, the private sector and NGOs can meet with the concerned government institutions to discuss issues of mutual interest or concern. Government shall endeavour to build capacity of the private sector and civil society organisations in the wildlife sector.
3.3 REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION
International and regional co-operation is an important conservation tool. Uganda is a signatory to and has ratified a number of international and regional wildlife conservation treaties, as summarised in Appendix 2. The provisions provided for in the various treaties encourage and often help individual countries to meet their respective obligations.
Uganda is a signatory to the East African Co-operation Treaty (EAC) and actively participates in EAC tourism, wildlife, and environmental committee deliberations. There are a number of opportunities to implement important aspects of the wildlife policy through regional and international co-operation. For example, cross border ecosystem and migratory wildlife population management issues, by their nature, necessitate regional and international co-operation.
The effective monitoring of wildlife trade and the control of poaching also requires regional and international co-operation. Significant benefits can be realised and effectiveness increased through regional and international initiatives. Government shall therefore pursue regional and international cooperation in implementation of this policy.
3.4 FINANCING STRATEGY
The underlying principle of Uganda’s financial strategy in respect to wildlife conservation is that adequate and sustainable financing are fundamental to effective wildlife management and conservation. Approaches that shall be taken to finance implementation of this policy include tourism and business development, Government core support, research and development grants, service levies, wildlife use rights, collaborative management arrangements, public private partnerships and wildlife conservation trust funds. The following strategies shall be pursued to finance this policy;
. a) Establish resource mobilisation partnerships for wildlife conservation.
. b) Supporting formation and management of public private partnership conservation trust funds.
. c) Allocate a fair share of the Country’s budget to the wildlife and tourism sector.
. d) Pursuing business and public private partnerships.
. e) Diversifying and promoting the wildlife and associated tourism products base.
. f) Diversifying of wildlife use-rights regime.
. g) Payment for ecosystem services.
3.5 MONITORING AND EVALUATION
Appropriate monitoring and evaluation systems are important to measure the impact of the new strategies, ascertain their progress and assess the effectiveness of making additional resources available to the sector.
In order to properly assess the impact of the Wildlife Policy, and the effectiveness of those programmes that support its implementation and on the status of conservation of wildlife resources and biodiversity, a constant and progressive monitoring and evaluation shall be carried out. This will provide information on the status of the country’s wildlife resources, and the effectiveness of new conservation strategies. There shall also be internal monitoring and evaluation systems to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the policy implementation institutions in the sector.
Appendix I: UGANDA LEGISLATIONS WITH BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS
In the interpretation and implementation of the Uganda Wildlife Policy there is need to take into account other relevant Uganda policies and legislations.
1. Uganda Wildlife Act, Cap 200 of 2000 This Act provides for conservation and management of Wildlife and wildlife protected areas in Uganda. It creates the Uganda wildlife Authority and charges it with management of wildlife in and outside protected areas. The Act under S.4 (3) puts the Uganda Wildlife Authority under overall supervision of the ministry responsible for wildlife. The legislation establishes wildlife use rights regime and creates various offences relating to wildlife.
2. The Game (Preservation and Control) Act, Cap 226 of 2000 This Act was repealed by the Wildlife Act Cap 200 and, therefore, is no longer valid. However, section 94(1)(a) of the Wildlife Act saves the schedules to the Game (Preservation and Control) Act until such a time they are replaced by new schedules to the Act.
3. The Fish and Crocodiles Act, Cap 228 of 2000 This law has been amended by the Wildlife Act in that crocodiles were removed from the Act and brought under the management of Uganda Wildlife Authority. Crocodiles therefore now need to be given protection status by including them in Act’s schedule of protected species.
4. The National Environment Act, Cap 153 of 2000. The object of the National Environment Act is to further the principles of environmental management by facilitating the conservation and enhancement of the environment. The Act provides for wildlife protection and contains provisions which can be applied to the protection and sustainable use of wildlife. It includes provisions for the conservation of biological resources in situ, and the selection and management of protected and buffer areas. The Act creates the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) which is charged with the coordination of relevant Ministries, Departments and Agencies of government. NEMA is empowered to issue guidelines on land use methods which are intended for the conservation of biological diversity.
5. The Forestry and Tree Planting Act 2003 The Act provides for the protection of forests through the creation of forest reserves in which human activity is strictly controlled. It seeks to control commercial harvesting of forest products through the use of licenses and promotes afforestation.
6. Local Governments Act, Cap 243 of 2000 The Local Governments Act provides for the decentralization of a wide range of the functions of Government to District level. It is essential that the wildlife sector should establish proper working relations with Local Government.
7. The Land Act, Cap 227 of 2000 The Land Act provides for the tenure, ownership and management of land in Uganda, and amends and consolidates related legislation. The Land Act provides for four forms of land tenure; freehold, leasehold, customary and mailo. The Act enables government (national or local) to acquire land, for the purpose of wildlife protection. The Act also has provisions which oblige an occupier of land to manage and utilize the land in an environmentally sound manner, and in accordance with provisions of the National Environment Act, the Forestry and Tree Planting Act, the Wildlife Act and other relevant legislation. The provisions of the Act are compatible with the allocation of wildlife use rights on private and community held land.
8. The Plant Protection Act The Plant Protection Act has provisions to help prevent the introduction and spread of diseases destructive to plants. The Commissioner for Agriculture is charged with the due administration of the Act, and the responsible Minister has power to make rules for the prevention of spread of an introduced pests, among others.
9. The Prohibition of Burning of Grass Act, Cap 33 of 2000 This law prohibits the unauthorized burning of grass except in accordance with the Act. Enforcement measures are given to the Sub county Chief who may in writing after consultation with a Veterinary or Agriculture Officer; authorize controlled burning of grass for a specific purpose.
10. The Animal Diseases Act, Cap. 218 of 2000 This Act provides for the control and prevention of the spread of disease in animals, including wildlife. The administration of the Act is vested in the responsible Minister and the Commissioner of Veterinary Services and Animal Industry.
11. The Animal (Prevention of Cruelty) Act, Cap 220 This Act provides for the prevention of cruelty to animals, which can include wildlife. The responsible Minister is empowered to appoint an authorized officer to implement provisions of the Act, and may also grant and revoke licenses.
12. The Cattle Grazing Act, Cap 222 of 2000
This Act makes provisions for the control and regulation of grazing of cattle to prevent overstocking and overgrazing. The administration of this Act is entrusted upon the Commissioner of the Veterinary Services and Animal Industry, under the direction of the responsible Minister. The Minister may by statutory instrument declare an area to be non-grazing area.
13. The Fish Act, Cap 197 of 2000
This law regulates the fisheries sector. It imposes restrictions on fishing gears, waters among others. This law is very useful in regulating activities in waters especially that fall under wildlife protected areas and or have wildlife.
14. Wetland Policy, 1995
This policy provides for management of wetlands in Uganda. Wetlands are important habitats for wildlife species and are key to conservation of wildlife in Uganda. The wetland law in offing will fully implement the policy.
15. Oil and Gas Policy for Uganda, 2008
Most of the oil and gas wells have been identified in sensitive wildlife protected areas. This policy clearly outlines Government intentions to exploit oil and gas for the benefit of Ugandans and commits Government to ensuring that oil and gas activities follow acceptable environmental standards. The policy identifies institutional responsibilities for monitoring of impacts to wildlife and clearly spells out roles of all stakeholders.
16. The Petroleum (Exploration, Development and Production) Act, 2013
The Act regulates petroleum exploration, development and production in Uganda and provides among others for efficient and safe petroleum activities including conditions for the restoration of derelict lands.
17. The Petroleum (Refining, Conversion, Transmission and Midstream Storage) Act, 2013
The objectives of the Act are; to regulate, manage, coordinate and monitor midstream operations; to enable the construction, placement and ownership of facilities; to provide for third party access to facilities and to regulate tariffs for facilities. The law also provides for health, safety and environment regulations during cessation of midstream operations and decommissioning of facilities.
AppendixII: INTERNATIONALANDREGIONALTREATIES,CONVENTIONS AND PROTOCOLS RELATING TO WILDLIFE CONSERVATION IN UGANDA
It is a recognised principle of international law that once a state enters into an international treaty with one or more states or international organisation or body it undertakes to honour the obligations under that treaty. The obligation is both legal and moral. The 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Uganda sets out the principles of foreign policy objective of Uganda as
(a) Promotion of the national interest of Uganda; (b) Respect for international law and treaty obligations; (c) Peaceful coexistence and nonalignment; (d) Settlement of international disputes by peaceful means; (e) Opposition to all forms of domination, racism and other forms of oppression and exploitation.
Uganda is a party to a number of international and regional treaties, agreements and conventions that relate to wildlife, these should be implemented in line with Uganda’s Constitutional principles governing foreign policy.
1. The Biological Diversity Convention, 1992
The Convention on Biological Diversity imposes a duty on its parties to take a number of measures to implement its provisions. The Convention, in particular, requires each nation to:
. a) Integrate sustainable utilisation of natural resources into its national strategies and plans and programmes;
. b) Promote in-situ conservation and in particular protect traditional knowledge about conservation and protection of threatened species;
. c) Promote ex-situ conservation;
. d) Promote sustainable use of biological diversity;
. e) Create economically and socially sound incentives for conservation and sustainable utilisation;
. f) Promote research, training and public awareness and education;
. g) Introduce environmental impact assessment;
. h) Govern access to genetic resource and promote transfer and access technology;
Promote bio safety; Promote international co-operation in the protection of biological diversity under various provisions.
Most of the above provisions are already incorporated in the National Environment Act, Cap 153. The Uganda Wildlife Act, Cap 200 of 2000 also adheres to the principles of the Convention, and provides for the sustainable management and utilisation of wildlife.
2. The African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1968 This Convention is the primary Pan-African legal instrument for the conservation of the environment in general and biological diversity in particular. The Convention adopts an ecosystem approach to environmental management, and provides for measures to ensure conservation, utilisation and development of soil, water, flora and fauna resources, in accordance with scientific principles and taking into account the interests of the inhabitants. Parties to the Convention undertake to establish and manage Protected Areas, and to protect certain species. The Convention obligates the parties to prohibit and regulate trade in specimens and trophies of protected species. States are required to take into account the conservation and management of the natural environment in their development plans, to promote conservation education and related research. The Uganda Wildlife Act incorporates the salient provisions of this convention into Uganda’s municipal law.
3. The Ramsar Convention, 1971 The Ramsar Convention provides for the protection of biological diversity in wetlands. Wetlands, under the Convention, have a wide coverage and cater for all watercourses and lakes in Uganda. The principle objective of the Convention is to provide the intergovernmental framework to develop a conducive environment for international co-operation in the conservation and management of wetlands. The Convention requires member states (parties) to include at least one wetland on the list of ‘Wetlands of International Importance’, and take active conservation measures for those wetlands included in the list. Uganda has already complied with the requirements of the Convention and has several Ramsar sites some of which are in wildlife protected areas. Uganda has also put in place a ‘National Policy for the conservation and Management of Wetlands Resources’ (1995), and this policy has been incorporated in the National Environment Act,1995, which includes provisions on management of wetlands. Under the Environment Act, all the developments in wetlands are subject to an Environment Impact Assesment (EIA).
4. The World Heritage Convention, 1972 The principal objective of the World Heritage Convention is to protect objects of cultural and natural heritage, which are of value to the present and future generations. “Natural heritage” includes natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations that are of outstanding universal value from an aesthetic and scientific point of view. The Convention urges parties to integrate the protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage into national planning and development programmes. The Convention has established a ‘World Heritage List’ which includes sites from throughout the world. To date, Uganda has included two sites Rwenzori Mountains National Park and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.
5. CITES, 1973 The main objective of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) is to control and regulate international trade in wildlife species through species classification and the use of permits. The Wildlife Act, has specific provisions relating to the preservation of populations of rare, endemic and endangered species of wild plants and animals, and CITES standard forms for permits and certificates are in use. However, there remains a need to put in place subsidiary legislation to specifically provide for the implementation of CITES in Uganda. The Fisheries Act, the Forestry and Tree Planting Act and many other laws in the field of agriculture do not make any specific mention of CITES provisions and, while the obligation created under the convention binds the state, it does not directly bind the citizens of that state.
6. The Stockholm Declaration, 1972 The Stockholm Declaration was adopted by the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment at Stockholm in 1972. The Conference increased awareness of the importance of conserving the environment. Conference declarations cover the need to safeguard the natural resources of the earth (including flora and fauna and especially representative samples of specific ecosystems) for the benefits of present and future generations. This is to be accomplished through careful planning and management, the maintenance of natural resources and, where practicable, their improvement or restoration, and the conservation of wildlife and their habitats.
7. The Lusaka Agreement, 1997 The Lusaka Agreement on Cooperative Enforcement Operations Directed at Illegal Trade in Wildlife Fauna and Flora was adopted to provide for co-operation in reducing illegal trade in wildlife fauna and flora, both nationally and internationally. The Agreement contains provisions for the establishment of a permanent Task Force and a National Bureau.
8. The Bonn Convention, 1979 The Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) recognises that the conservation and efficient management of migratory species of wild animals requires concerted efforts of all states within their national jurisdiction of which species spend part of their lives. The Uganda Wildlife Act provides for the protection of migratory species of wild animals which is in line with the Bonn Convention. Others protocols have been formulated under this convention and they include African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) and Gorilla Agreement.
9. East African Community Protocol on Environment and Natural Resources This protocol obligates Uganda to sustainably conserve wildlife resources in partnership with the local communities. The protocol requires Uganda to cooperate in management of transboundary wildlife resources, promoting of social and economic incentives for conservation and to conclude agreements aimed at conserving transboundary wildlife resources.
Appendix III: THE UGANDA WILDLIFE POLICY, 2014 FORMULATION PROCESS
The Uganda Wildlife Policy, 2014 formulation process was spearheaded by a taskforce established on 18th April 2010 comprising of:
Mr.JamesLutalo, then,CommissionerWildlifeConservation,MinistryofTourism,Trade&Industry,asChairperson Mr. Akankwasah Barirega, then, Principal Wildlife Officer, Ministry of Tourism, Trade & Industry, as Secretary Mr. Namanya Naboth, then, Principal Policy Analyst, Ministry of Tourism, Trade & Industry, as Member Dr. Andrew Sseguya, then, Executive Director, Uganda Wildlife Education Centre, as Member
Mr. Turyamwesimira John, Principal Instructor, Uganda Wildlife Training Institute, as Member Mr. John Makombo, Director Conservation, Uganda Wildlife Authority, as Member Mr. Charles Tumwesigye, Chief Conservation Area Manager, Uganda Wildlife Authority, as Member
The formulation process was preceded by wide consultations at National and Regional levels. The consultations covered all Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies, Local Governments, Wildlife Userights holders and Concessionaires, tour operators, conservation Non Governmental Organisations and the Academia. The Draft Policy was validated through a national consultative conference before being submitted to Ministry Top Management for endorsement and finally Cabinet for approval.